What Change Management Strategies Can Be Undertaken By British Petroleum after Undertaking Strategic Analysis to Help Them Gain Competitive Advantage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What Change Management Strategies Can Be Undertaken By British Petroleum after Undertaking Strategic Analysis to Help Them Gain Competitive Advantage

 

 

 

 

 

What Change Management Strategies Can Be Undertaken By British Petroleum after Undertaking Strategic Analysis to Help Them Gain Competitive Advantage by

Dr. Daniel James GRACE

Doctorate Degree

Business Administration

2013

Change Management II

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

 

 

To complete this report, I have to interface many people and it would be injustice they are not included in the list of acknowledgement. I was going in the traditional way to complete this report as I was preparing to write a job report but My supervisor gives me an intellectual direction that is to do some research work and no doubt on this click I learned more. All teachers of department, their love, care and pet guidance paved all the difficulties which I felt in corporate sector.

 

Change Management III

 

 

DECLARATION

 

 

 

 

I, Dr. Daniel James Grace, would like to declare     that all contents included in this

 

thesis/dissertation stand for my individual work without any aid, & this thesis/dissertation has not been submitted for any examination at academic as well as professional level previously. It is also representing my very own views & not essentially which are associated with university.

 

 

Signature:

 

 

 

 

Date:

 

Change Management IV

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………………. II

 

DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… III

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

 

1.1 Inquiry Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.2 Background of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………… 2

1.3 Organization Background……………………………………………………………………………………. 2

1.4 Reason for Chosen This Topic……………………………………………………………………………… 4

1.5 Purpose for Undertaking the Research…………………………………………………………………. 5

1.6 Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.7 Aim & Objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.8 Research Question……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

1.9 Structure of the Dissertation……………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.10 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

 

2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

2.2 British Petroleum……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

2.2.1 Brief description of British Petroleum…………………………………………………………. 8

2.2.2 The Main Legislation Affecting British Petroleum……………………………………….. 9

2.2.3 Main Drivers of BP’s Environmental Policy………………………………………………. 11

2.2.4 Better Leadership Required……………………………………………………………………… 13

2.3 Change Management………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

2.4 Change Management Model………………………………………………………………………………. 17

2.4.1 Basic conditions for enterprise development………………………………………………. 19

2.4.2 Organizational Change Management………………………………………………………… 20

2.4.3 Promotion of the organization………………………………………………………………….. 21

2.5 Labor Rating……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

2.6 Personnel Management…………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

2.7 Standards and Quality………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

2.8 Other Change Management Strategies for Competitive Advantage…………………………. 22

2.9 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

 

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

 

3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

3.2 The Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

3.5 Research Method……………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

3.6 Research Strategy…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

3.7 Data Collection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26

3.8 Rationale for a Qualitative Study……………………………………………………………………….. 26

3.10 Limitation………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

3.12 Time Horizon…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

3.13 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

 

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CHAPTER 4: CRITICAL ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………………… 30

 

4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30

4.2 Critical Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

4.3 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

 

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………………. 34

 

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

5.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34

5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35

5.4 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36

 

CHAPTER 6: SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH…………………………………………………………………… 37

 

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

 

Change Management 1

 

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1 Inquiry Overview

 

The main objective of this research was to understand and identify the change management strategies that can help global companies like British Petroleum to gain competitive advantage. This research has been organized in successive chapters and exposes the overall concept of change management and how the change management strategies influence companies to gain advantage over their competitors. The change management model has also been discussed in the study, which provides an over view of the concept on the significance of the change management. Initially, this report presents an introduction to the topic and sets out the research questions and objectives, highlighting key background information and explaining the reasons behind the study. Following the introduction, the second chapter review extensive literature on the topic at hand and also on other theories which relate and/or support the overall issue being considered. This section is particularly relevant as it covers the views from authors and experts in the area, providing invaluable frameworks which outlined and supported the whole research. Subsequent to the second chapter is the consideration of general research methods and its main advantages and disadvantages. Further, the third part of this study explains which methods were applied to this specify research and the reasons why such approached were selected. Key information on this chapter includes an explanation of the research approach and strategies undertaken during the study and details on how the data was collected. The fourth chapter presents an introduction to the chapter and critically analyzes the data with the views of several authors. After the consideration of the research findings, the following chapter exhibits the main conclusions in line with the literature review previously conducted, while answering the

 

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research questions and addressing its objectives. At the same time, the fifth chapter provides conclusion and also explains how this research can be used for further investigation.

 

 

 

1.2 Background of the Study

 

For the study conducted, there was a requirement of the resources which would assist to identify key constituents that have been undertaken for the purpose. In order to achieve this target, the focus of the study was on the various types of strategies of change management that can be undertaken by British Petroleum. The British Petroleum operates worldwide and in diverse population. For example, the European market, people can be divided into various sub-cultures and consumer behavior is also different (Ford & Jeffrey, 2009, 105). Also today for automobile sector, it is important to deliver quality to its customers. In addition, consumers are better informed about the choice. The company must keep abreast of the latest modifications so that they capture the largest market and outperform their competitors. There are various factors that can play a crucial role in getting competitive advantage. Change management has got huge importance these days, however, it is necessary to critically understand the concept of change management. Therefore, this study will investigate in order to find out the role of change management towards getting competitive advantage (Harris, 2009, 58).

 

 

1.3 Organization Background

 

British Petroleum Plc is a global oil and gas company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. The company is the ranked as the fourth-largest company in the world considered by revenues and is graded as the third-largest energy company in oil and gas sector (British Petroleum, 2010, online). British Petroleum, also shortened as BP is one of the six oil and gas

 

Change Management 3

 

 

“super majors”. The company is an active participant in all the aspects of oil and gas industry and is vertically-integrated. The main participation of the company includes refining, exploration and production, marketing, and distribution of petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It is also engaged in the main activities of renewing energy, including hydrogen, bio fuels, solar and wind power (British Petroleum, 2010, Online). British Petroleum operates in more than 80 countries, possesses 400 service stations across the world and produces on an estimated of 3.8 million barrels of oil or its equivalent per day. BP America is the largest division of the company and is the biggest producer of oil and gas. This division is located in the United States and is headquartered in Houston, Texas (British Petroleum, 2006, Online). According to the statistics on 31 December 2010, British Petroleum had a total of proven commercial reserves amounting to 18.07 billion barrels of oil or its equivalent (BP. 2010, Online). The company’s former name, British Petroleum, has given derivation to “BP” from the initials of the company.

 

The track record of corporate social responsibility in BP has been diverse. There are various environmental and safety incidents that the company has been involved in and has also obtained criticism for its political influence. Later, in the year 1997, the company became the first major oil company to openly admit the necessity to take major steps against climate change. In the same year, British Petroleum established a target on the organizational level in order to lessen the emissions of greenhouse gases (British Petroleum, 2005, Online). Currently, BP invests more than $1 billion every year for the purpose of developing the renewable energy sources, and has also committed to spend $8 billion on renewable during the period of 2005 and 2015. BP is primarily listed on the London Stock Exchange and it is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange (British Petroleum, 2003, p. 2).

 

Change Management 4

 

 

British Petroleum continues to construct the main features of labor, and this is further complimented productivity flowing through the company’s bottom line layers. And also provides good performance over the operational period in 2009, BP set, through a significant strategic plan, which revised some of their less profitable sectors in the entire company. On a broader scale, BP performance over the last decade, it has allowed them to create a portfolio of high quality delivery for a long time the potential sustainability of equal if not superior to any in the industry. BP strategy gave them the name of effective Explorer accompanied reserved experience replacing one of the highest in terms of their competition as well as long lived with the underlying asset bias with conventional oil. In refining and marketing, the company has less overall impact on processing than peers. With a high graded portfolio over the past decades, larger and more profitable refineries than most other super specialties put the company well positioned for further growth in profits over the next decade (McLean& Judi, 2008, 111).

 

 

1.4 Reason for Chosen This Topic

 

Strategic changes are related to organizational transformation, and in today’s work environment continuous changes are of significance importance for being a step ahead from the competitors. They affect large-scale, long problematic issues within the organization (Okumus, 2008, 283). Change strategies, in fact the movement in the future state, formed as a rule, based on strategic vision and capabilities. The changes affect areas such as the intended mission and organization, corporate philosophy on how the organization of its growth, quality, innovation and value on people, customer service and use of technology. The general definition is complemented by clarifying the competitive position and strategic goals for achieving and maintaining competitive advantage and the development of goods / markets. These objectives are

 

Change Management 5

 

 

supported by corporate policies in areas such as marketing, sales, manufacturing, product development and process, finance and human resources management (Palmerino, 2009, 35). Strategic changes occur in the context of the external competitive, economic and social environment, as well as internal organizational resources, capabilities, culture, structures and systems. Their successful implementation requires careful analysis and understanding of these factors in the formulation and plans (Pietersen, 2009, 32).

 

 

1.5 Purpose for Undertaking the Research

 

The study will help assess to make a fair comparison of the role of change management strategies than can be helpful for global companies like British Petroleum for gaining competitive advantage.

 

 

1.6 Statement of the Problem

 

The problem statement that shall be used as primary parameter for the purpose and analysis is change management strategies that can be undertaken by British Petroleum.

 

 

 

  • Aim & Objectives

 

Defining the main objectives of any research is the first step into developing a structured

 

work as these objectives will provide an important support to the overall investigation. Lacking such guidance could result in a poor study with no relevant and useful meaning. This enquiry aims to consider the strategies of change management which can be undertaken by British Petroleum, and in order to accomplish such a task the following objectives have been set:

 

To understand the concept of change management

 

Change Management 6

 

 

To analyze the operations of British Petroleum and requirements of the leadership

 

To understand change management at organizational level

 

To explain change management strategies for competitive advantage

 

 

 

 

  • Research Question

 

Based on the above objectives, research questions are necessary to specify and provide even further guidance on how the study’s main issues can be addressed. These questions are to be answered at the end of this investigation and will be used to drawn a final conclusion from the research conducted. Following are the research questions:

 

What is the concept of change management?

 

Briefly explain the operations of British Petroleum and requirements of the leadership?

 

What is change management at organizational level?

 

Briefly discuss the change management strategies for competitive advantage?

 

 

 

 

  • Structure of the Dissertation

 

Chapter 01: Provides a very broad but concise introduction & the background of the problem to be addressed for the readers, so that they could have an overview of the topic. The chapter also gives the objectives of the research & the research questions. Additionally, it presents the aims and outcomes of the literature review as well.

 

Chapter 02: Opens up with the literature review.

 

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Chapter 03: Provide method for the collection of data for literature review and critique over prior searches and the methods used in research journals for carrying out study.

 

Chapter 04: provide very clear and critical review of the literature that is applicable & quite close to the related subject, on the other hand, it also provides the explanation, discussion & crucial thinking for providing the involvement in the same area.

 

Chapter 05: provides reflection on the topic under discussion and offers the research question results & results shortened in the form of a conclusion to the dissertation along with the recommendations, suggestions & future areas for research in the same context.

 

Chapter 06: Provides the scope for future research

 

 

 

 

  • Summary

 

This chapter has provided an introduction to the research, including a background of the study and of the topic being debated, in order to underline the problem which generated this piece of work. In addition, the first chapter highlighted the reasons behind the chosen topic and the factors motivating the researcher while explaining the issue at hand. The main objectives of the study alongside the questions which need to be answered have also been considered and, combined with the other information in this chapter; provide an overview of this research as a whole.

 

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

 

 

 

 

2.1 Introduction

 

This chapter will cover the main concepts relevant to the study through an extensive analysis of literature. It starts by reviewing literature on the idea of change management and focusing on the definition of the term as well as the important issues which must be considered when studying such concept. While getting an insight into the topic, this chapter will also highlight the competitive advantage gained by implementing such strategies.

 

 

2.2 British Petroleum

 

2.2.1 Brief description of British Petroleum

 

BP, British Petroleum, is an energy company, engaged primarily in the oil and natural gas, which is based in London, United Kingdom. It is one of the largest companies in the world (since the eighth as the American magazine Forbes) and the third largest firm dedicated to oil and gas after ExxonMobil and Royal Dutch Shell. British Petroleum oil spill in the Mexico Gulf is the largest and worst ever oil spill accident in the history of petroleum industry (Ackoff, pp. 47-54). The oil spill started on April 20, 2010 in consequence of Deepwater Horizon drilling rig flare-up which killed eleven people and injured seventeen others. So far, approximately five million barrels of oil has gushed into the water severely affecting the marine life in the Gulf of Mexico. As per the current status the oil well is completely sealed but the task of drilling a relief well in order to eliminate the risk of oil spilling completely is still pending (Huberman 1998, pp. 179-210).

 

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2.2.2 The Main Legislation Affecting British Petroleum

 

Even though, all concern being in use, oil spills might occur in consequence of a mishmash of procedures and situations. The most of oil spills is little and by far controlled; conversely huge spills do happen rarely which involve larger endeavor in repression and crackdown operations (Hartley 2007, pp. 61-73). The foremost reasons of oil spills across the globe are:

 

Regular operations such as refuel, unloading or loading

 

Accidents and smashes between tankers or vessels and other transport vehicles

 

Ships operating aground

 

Cracked channels

 

Oil exploration movements

 

Involuntary stoppage of oil collection and storing apparatus.

 

Oil spills can encompass a severe impact on aquatic creatures like fish, shellfish, sea mammals, water birds, and aquatic plants. The instant hazard to aquatic creatures by an oil spill is that of corporeal suffocation, whereby the oil coats all exterior in a thick slick. This might ultimately bring about the fatality of creatures as a result of their lack of ability to normally nourish, reproduce, respire and progress (Gumperz 2002, pp. 4-15). All creatures which get in touch with an oil slick surface are in danger, and these might include sea mammals and reptiles, marine birds, seashore aquatic life and any rigorous fishery or rearing operations in the direct vicinity such as aquaculture pens. Seabirds are chiefly vulnerable to oil spills, with many fatalities consequential from loss or harm of plumage (Gill 2003, pp.307-318).

 

The derived risk posed to aquatic creatures is the chemical composition of the oil. The mainly lethal constituents of oil are extremely volatile and soluble, so animals are most in danger

 

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straight subsequent to the spill, with the danger declining in due course (Gardner 2001, pp. 48-54). The ability of creatures to survive oil pollution differs. Such as, species that have mechanisms to pass up unfavorable situations, for example intertidal flora and fauna, may simply shut their shells until the immediate threat has gone, while the eggs, larval and juvenile phases of creatures might be very vulnerable to oil contamination(Fong 2002, pp. 33-115). The threat to giant swimming animals for example whales and dolphins is generally small because of their high mobility; Still coastal sea mammals like seals, turtles and reptiles might be vulnerable because of their requirement to surface to respire and their necessity of reproduction on land (Dunphy 2003, pp. 905-920).

 

Flora and fauna on the sea bed may be vulnerable to dipping oil as poisonous constituents can cause harm to mangroves, coral reefs, and related communities. Sea grass beds are vulnerable to oil contamination, with death and defoliation consequential from the suffocating and poisonous impact of the oil on the sea grass (Diefenbach 2006, pp. 124-163). As a result of oil spill caused by the sinking of the platform Deepwater Horizon is produced extraordinary cleaning costs, grants and allowances of 2,700 million euros which reduced the value of BP in the stock market and therefore profitability of pension plans associated with investments in BP. This caused the June 14th of 2010 the credit rating agency Fitch Group downgraded the rating on British Petroleum AA to BBB (Cooperrider 2003, pp. 99-142). The company’s financial situation threatened the company to face its sale or takeover by U.S. oil, ExxonMobil and Chevron Corporation, or even Chinese, Arabic or Russian oil companies. A crash or takeover of BP would struck the British (Connell 2000, pp. 23–40).

 

To achieve liquidity, BP agreed to sell to the U.S. Apache Corp. of assets worth 7,000 million dollars, 5,000 of which should become effective on July 30, 2010. The specific assets are

 

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its business of oil production and natural gas in the United States, Canada and Egypt (Clegg 2004, pp. 217-239).

 

 

 

2.2.3 Main Drivers of BP’s Environmental Policy

 

The risk of an oil leak would undoubtedly have been on BP’s risk register and should have been assessed as having a high impact. The probability of this disaster occurring may have been assessed; with the company concluding it was low (Chesbrough 2003, pp.35-41). The BP management strategy would likely have been considered on a cost-benefit basis. But, with the business facing massive penalties/fines/loss of custom if it didn’t act appropriately, the costs to rectify the situation have become enormous. With the eyes of the world on the company as it continues to tackle the disaster, BP has spent more than $1bn trying to contain the spill. It has also promised to pay all legitimate claims for compensation, which is likely to ramp up the cost by further billions of dollars (Cantrell 2009, pp. 13-28).

 

BP also pledged $500m for an ‘open’ investigation into the spill and to research better ways of tracking oil spills with technology. The 10-year research program addressed what can be done ‘to improve technology to detect oil, disperse oil and dispersant on the seabed, in the water column, and on the surface’ as well as for remediating the impact of oil accidently released into the ocean. This is in addition to studying effects of the oil and dispersant on the seabed (Calori 2000, pp.779-804). The disaster wiped some $40bn from BP’s market value, as its share price rapidly fell 15% to £4.20 – its lowest level since April 2009. Understandably, shareholders are not happy and they have taken legal action against the board for deteriorating to supervise safety and making the company vulnerable to possibly huge burden connected to the spill (Buchanan, pp. 609-629). The claimants are looking for damages plus in quest to direct the board to do

 

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something to progress corporate governance for instance limiting the number of inside directors and setting up an ecological exposure oversight committee (Boje 2005, pp. 63-19).

 

BP as a public corporation has an ethical obligation to fulfil a mixture of normative and instrumental duties to employees, stakeholders and society as a whole in order to create long term values and wealth (Boje 2001, pp. 93-117). But BP has a long history of ethical and legal violations. In the last couple of decades there have been many incidents where BP’s actions have proved that BP considers economic profit more important than moral and legal obligations to the society and the environment. BP as a responsible corporation has an obligation to all stakeholders including employees (Beer 1990, pp.158-166). Investigation performed by the government revealed that BP didn’t give much importance to employee safety and used riskier methods to seal the oil well. The cement around the casing pipe was not sealed properly which resulted in the gas leakage leading to explosion. Probe also revealed that Minerals Management Service employees responsible for monitoring drilling operations were involved in unethical activities including accepting gifts from the oil and gas companies (Bartunek 1984, pp.355-372).

 

BP tried to cover up the extent of damage by not providing all the relevant data and information to the government and to the public. Wrong information provided by BP made the situation worse as people lost faith and trust in the reports published by the BP officials forcing the Government to establish its own measures and checks (Argris, pp. 169-201). Social contract between organizations and stakeholders based on the basis of trust is vital element in establishing stewardship. British Petroleum spokesperson, Tom Mueller commented that they were not going to make any extra pains then to compute flow there at that point. It would not be pertinent to the response attempted, and it might even detract from the response attempted (Ackoff, pp. 47-54). It clearly demonstrated BP’s unwillingness to provide the accurate information on the oil spill to

 

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the stakeholders including scientists and the Government. The media and scientists didn’t get much support from the BP’s management which could have helped to provide early solution to the oil spill disaster. BP didn’t give importance to the primary non-social stakeholder “environment” before using dispersants to quick fix the oil spill as it can have negative effect on the marine habitat (Stewart 2003, pp. 675-688).

 

 

2.2.4 Better Leadership Required

 

Minimizing future deepwater drilling mishaps might be realized by improving leadership proficiencies. While such kind of drilling has its attendant hazards, the leadership necessary in such activities is slight different than that required in most other conditions (Deem 2004, pp. 107-128). Leadership enhancements essential to avert comparable occurrences consist of:

 

  1. A solo overall project leader.

 

  1. Clear communications to every individual functioning on the project.

 

  1. Greater safety trainings linking past experiences and crisis analysis.

 

  1. Hiring employees with the essential skills to complete tasks competently and securely.

 

  1. A clear description of participant roles and assignments to complete tasks securely and

 

competently.

 

Enhancing leadership in deep-water drilling procedures will certainly effect in more well-organized procedures, improved safety, superior job satisfaction, and minimized cost over the long term, pledging the capability to supply energy profitably and safely far into the future. One of the major causes of the oil spill is BP’s negligence of the safety measures and risk mitigation by not considering the effect of company’s decisions and actions on the various primary and secondary stakeholders (Weick 2009, pp.361-3). The situation became worse when BP tried to

 

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hide information from the stakeholders which resulted in loss of trust between the higher management and the stakeholders. At that point, BP needed to be transparent to its stakeholders and worked to achieve trust and stakeholders’ engagement to build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage required to build long-term values and wealth. As a result, BP needs to develop significant change management strategies to gain competitive advantage to deal with the challenging external and internal market pressures (Senge 1999, pp. 137-142).

 

 

2.3 Change Management

 

Change management is a generic process applicable to all kinds of organizations, which uses knowledge and skills to bring about substantial organizational change to improve effectiveness and efficiency. Change may be required due to an outdated organizational structure, poor responsiveness to clients, technological change, a merger, or an inappropriate organizational culture. In most cases, a combination of several factors is involved. While change now concerns most managers, it is only in the last decade that change management has become a distinct subfield of general management, joining project management, operations management, and services management. It now has its own research and theoretical literature, professional bodies, and record of successes and failures.

 

Being an applied activity, the theoretical and practical dimensions of change management are inextricably linked. Published literature covers (a) overviews of the field of organizational change and development; and (b) conceptual models of organizations and the change process derived largely from consulting experiences. Stewart 2003, pp. 675-688) provide an overview of approaches, issues, and problems in change management within the wider field of organization development. Adopting the perspective of the external consultant, they outline an open-system

 

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model for diagnosing organizations to locate key problems at organizational, group, and individual levels. Common problems at the organizational level Centre on an organization’s strategy (mission, goals and objectives, intent, policies), structure (linkages between subunits and the allocation of authority), and processes (measurement and human resource systems). (Thompson 2008, pp. 23-31). Ideally, strategy, structure, and processes should be synchronized but, in practice, such fit is seldom attained. A key task of many change managers is to improve the level of synchronization. (Pina & Torres 2003, pp. 334-350) also provide models for assessing how groups and individual roles are functioning in existing organizations. Groups can be assessed in terms of design features like the clarity of their goals, the composition of their membership, and their performance norms — all of which affect their cohesiveness, the quality of their decisions, and their productivity. Individual jobs can be diagnosed in terms of skill variety, autonomy, and feedback about performance. Central to (Pina & Torres 2003, pp. 334-350) model is that the design features at the organizational, group, and individual levels should be congruent. They also provide a comprehensive evaluation of techniques and approaches to improve organizations based on diagnostic data. Many examples are provided to show the relevance of change management theory to practical problems.

 

Nohria ( 2000, pp.133-141) perspective on change management is from the practicing manager’s viewpoint rather than the external consultant’s. He uses research, consulting, and related material to take us through issues in the change process including: choices of structure; blocks to attaining and sustaining effectiveness; techniques for assessing organizations; leadership and managerial skills for change; and how employees cope with organizational change. Many case studies, mainly British, are provided. Change management proceeds on the basis of a set of assumptions about how organizations work and what might make them work

 

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better Torres (2004, pp. 99-112) develop a set of “frames” by which to picture organizational realities. Frames help us order experience and decide what action to take. The structural frame highlights goals, organizational structure, and formal roles and relationships. The human resource frame accesses individuals and groups in organizations and the interrelationships between them. The political frame views organizations as arenas in which different interest groups compete for power and scarce resources. The symbolic frame draws out the rituals, ceremonies, stories, heroes, and other cultural features of organizations — organizational life as analogous to live theatre with organizational members as actors. No one frame is more important or more representative of reality than another; change managers need an appreciation of all four.

 

Academic texts often describe change management as a huge uphill battle, complicated, and difficult to accomplish. Stubbart (1989, pp. 325-345) approach is almost the opposite. Basing his success model on a set of core propositions (for example implementation can take place quickly, concentrated power is an aid to rapid implementation), he places himself in the change manager’s role to elaborate on six different kinds of change (takeover, injection, succession, renovation, partnership, catalytic) each requiring a different approach to change management, particularly in the use of power. Fourteen factors of change, derived from his and other’s experiences and extensive interview data, are also detailed. Each addresses the concerns of change managers head on: for example, the illusion of unity (you cannot expect everyone to be behind the change) and how open to be (there are risks in being too candid). Stubbart (1989, pp. 325-345) makes a solid contribution to change management by integrating experience and research data to create models and principles for practitioners. As a result, he avoids the ideological bias of some change management gurus (Venkatraman 2009, pp. 423-444).

 

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McCauley (2000, pp. 87-116) believes that what is said and how it is said is axiomatic to success with organizational change. Communication failures undermine leadership attempts at change, leaving employees without the crucial knowledge to understand what is happening and why. However, even when communication is used, it is often used poorly or thoughtlessly. As a result, many employees end up confused, angry, sceptical, and cynical. But what should be communicated and how? McCauley gives a clear, reader-friendly response based on his central thesis derived from 35 years consulting experience. The only argument, powerful enough to encourage people to embrace change, is one that is rooted in the marketplace. To be successful, managers involved in wide-ranging organizational change, need to be “transformational leaders” with particular characteristics: lifelong learners, driven by values, visionaries with a capacity to deal with complexity, ambiguity, uncertainty, and high levels of risk (Melbourne 2003, pp. 46– 58) Several authors have developed these leadership requirements into a set of prescriptions for change managers. Kotter, for example, provides an eight-stage leadership model that takes us through establishing a sense of urgency, creating teamwork based on trust and a common goal, developing a vision and strategy, empowering employees, and consolidating gains, and producing more change (Te’eni 2001, pp. 251-312).

 

 

2.4 Change Management Model

 

BP’s management needs to understand that the organizational dimension, as a space, considers the structure and procedures of the company throughout its internal chain of value, mission and vision, and development mechanisms, according to the changing trends in an economy, which are increasingly becoming globalized and competitive (Walsh 1995, pp. 280-231). In addition, the management of British Petroleum needs to address with regard to human

 

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resources of the company and its potential contributions to the competitive development of the organization: its characteristics and motivating factors of identification with the mission, vision and values of the company.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No doubt, the views and things, the organizational dimension demands a lot of attention from BP’s management and becomes the true thermometer of the possibilities of success of British Petroleum in the long term. The management needs to remember that the purpose of the analysis is to identify capabilities and competitive and innovative potential in general and that are sustainable in the long term (Mintzberg 2005, pp. 257-272). With this in mind, the management needs to explain the weighting model developed to measure the organizational variables, which is based on a dynamic conception of organizational management in which the management identifies three stages: the first on the basic conditions for survival; the second addresses the management of change in the company, and finally the time to promote the organization or strategic thrust of their abilities. Basic survival conditions indicate the minimum requirements for British Petroleum to have viability in today’s market. This shows change management issues and actions necessary for British Petroleum to achieve change, allowing the management to: address the traditional way of “doing things”, identify the obstacles or problems and allow the creation of a “vision” to where it should guide their efforts. The promotion of the

 

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organization is the time when the British Petroleum takes steps to build capacity to consolidate the new “way of doing things” (Stewart 2003, pp. 675-688).

 

The set of indicators needs to be established by British Petroleum at different levels. The higher level of aggregation measures the performance of British Petroleum and the energy sector under study in relation to the organizational dimension as a whole. This indicator of organizational management simply presents the aggregate of the values of the three second-level indicators or moments of organizational management. The second level of aggregation coincides with the three moments in which it is intends to organize a set of sub-indicators analyzed, up to the level of sub-indicators and variables whose values are derived from each of the questions applied in the polls (Paton 2000, pp. 23-68).

 

 

2.4.1 Basic conditions for enterprise development

 

This first time two sets of variables weighted organized in two tertiary sub-indicators:

 

Internal conditions: This first group of variables measures the basic British Petroleum’s aspects of an internal nature of the business (quality assessment, reference tools, team spirit, techno-productive conditions, working conditions and dissemination of information).

 

Environmental conditions: This group of variables measures the organizational aspects of the clients that are vital for proper development of the company (difficult by the absence or dilution of functions in the organization of the main client).

 

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2.4.2 Organizational Change Management

 

In the second stage, the organizational change management indicator measures the balance of tradeoffs between the acceptance of a new management policy and consideration of barriers to change in the company. At the third level of disaggregation, there are two indicators: Development of new management policies: This indicator measures the impact of the valuation made by employers to a set of policies for the Organization of the work that is currently spreading in the globally competitive companies (pace and workload, productivity of labor, qualification and versatility of labor, incidence of worker quality, and use of subcontracting and part-time work). It also measures the type of hiring employees (fixed fee paid by the piece and outsourcing), and the effect of the valuation of the most widespread management changes today (flattening of the hierarchy, participation in decision making, delegation of responsibilities, management information systems, and training of managers) (Walsh 1995, pp. 280-231).

 

Barriers to Change: Within this level of disaggregation of the management of change, the management of British Petroleum needs to identify the three sub-indicators: organizational barriers to change, barriers to increased automation, and the effect of age profile. The first subgroup of indicators refers to the assessment made by entrepreneurs in the barriers to organizational change. It measures effects such as: lack of skilled labor, low cost of labor, not suitable for the process, lack of qualified personnel, high cost of training, middle management resistance, resistance of the union, high costs of change, low production scale, technical issues, financing, production disruption. The indicator barriers to greater automation, value the same factors described above, but focusing on the extent to which prevent the automation of processes within the company. Finally, in line with current economic approaches suggest the need to maintain a staffing structure with a length not too long, it is considered as a barrier to the effect

 

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of the age profile in the different categories of personnel in the company (Deem 2004, pp. 107-128).

 

 

 

2.4.3 Promotion of the organization

 

The next stage is the promotion of the organization indicator that measures the effect resulting from the valuation made by the top leadership at British Petroleum in a series of actions and policies that usually apply in the most modern and competitive companies today. Some of which are measured by four indicators on the next level of disaggregation. They are: Qualification of work, profile attributes, Personnel Management and Standardization and quality (Weick 2009, pp.361-3).

 

 

2.5 Labour Rating

 

This shows the level of education (graduate, university, technical upper secondary education, completed primary and incomplete primary) staff of the company profile occupation (managers and directors, professionals and technicians, clerks, skilled and unskilled workers) according to the management of British Petroleum. The profile attributes are broken down into senior technical staff and personnel workers. Technical staff for college and university is measured, among other criteria, the assessment of: solid basic training, updating in technology, information processing skills, responsibility, initiative to address new problems, research habits, language skills and ability to leadership. For the laborer Personal values: logical reasoning, general technical knowledge, manual skill, responsibility, ability to learn, initiative to problem solving and communication skills. In both cases, the value-weighted measures hierarchy (the top

 

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three places of importance) that give employers a set of attributes that should be the staff of both classes (Senge 1999, pp. 137-142).

 

 

 

2.6 Personnel Management

 

It is another indicator of the aggregate component Promotion Organization: the result of the assessment made by entrepreneurs of the objectives of human resources unit and training programs. The indicator, Millennium HR unit, measures the extent of the activities that

 

drive. We believe, at the discretion of the company, the following: recruitment and selection, monitoring and evaluation, requirements planning, career planning, incentive and compensation, and training. With the indicator extension training programs assesses the distribution of those activities by type of staff (Thompson 2008, pp. 23-31).

 

 

2.7 Standards and Quality

 

This indicator measures the level of application of the methods of standardization and quality in the everyday activities of the company. We studied the use of these methods primarily in purchasing, sales and internal processes of the company (Li 2005, pp.77-95).

 

 

2.8 Other Change Management Strategies for Competitive Advantage

 

There are other strategies, which British Petroleum can adopt and implement to gain competitive advantage. These strategies comprise of six steps to bring effective change that focus on harmonization of tasks, the reorganization of the roles of employees, responsibilities and relationships to solve specific organizational problems, and goals and objectives which can be

 

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clearly identified. The six steps, which the management of British Petroleum can implement, are as below:

 

Mobilization of commitment to change through a joint analysis of problems.

 

Development of a shared vision of organizational processes and methods of management, so that the company can achieve the objectives such as competitiveness.

 

Encouragement of adoption of a new vision, and having the competency to implement it.

 

Increase the activity of all departments, without pressure from above – not to force this problem, but to allow each department to find its way to the new organization.

 

Harmonize activities through a formal policy, systems and structures.

 

Monitor and adjust strategies in response to the problem of the renewal process.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Summary

 

This chapter presented a detailed analysis of the most relevant theories related to the research topic, starting with an in-depth consideration of the concept of change management. The conceptual clarification section included different points of view related to the study as well as the issues which need to be considered when dealing with this issue. Furthermore, this chapter provided an overview of the change management strategies can be help for British Petroleum in getting competitive advantage.

 

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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

 

 

 

 

3.1 Introduction

 

The third chapter is the consideration of general research methods and take into considerations the scope and rationale for the method of research selected. Further, the third part of this study explains which methods were applied to this specify research and the reasons why such approached were selected. In order to develop practices and policies that drive desirable behavior, it is necessary to understand the common experiences of those that have experienced a phenomenon and the assumptions that they hold (Cresswell, 2007, p. 60). This qualitative phenomenological study was performed to describe change management strategies that can be undertaken by British petroleum in order to gain competitive advantage. Webster’s Dictionary defined methodology as “a branch of philosophy dealing with the science of method or procedure”. The study employed a social constructivist perspective in guiding the inquiry. Among this chapter, these frameworks are explored in further detail. This chapter also described the detailed procedures related to how the data regarding the topic under discussion was gathered. Further, research method standards and ethical considerations are discussed to make sure that the planned research study conforms to acceptable quality standards and does not endanger the well-being of any research data.

 

 

3.2 The Research Design

 

The first step of any research is to identify a subject area of research and design a clear objective within it to do further study on that particular research. Secondly, after getting

 

secondary data from different sources on a similar subject has to be critically reviewed. To carry

 

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out proper research an ideal person has to be defined, out of which, a sample has to be dispatched for survey by different sources. But in qualitative secondary research the data has to be gathered from the available sources like libraries and journal articles. The data gathered is than critically analyzed to look for the views and consideration of the previous searches on the same topic on hand.

 

 

3.5 Research Method

 

This research is based on the secondary data. The research encompasses the publications, articles and similar studies accessible on the internet. Keeping in view the approach taken in earlier studies the research began with a broad analysis of the existing literature. The critical analysis & conclusions are based on the secondary data. The methodology used for the purpose of this research is based on the secondary data. This research is more or less based on the literature review & the conclusions are drawn on the basis of actual resources listed in the references. The research approach used is qualitative. Qualitative research is much more subjective than quantitative research and uses very different methods of collecting information

 

 

3.6 Research Strategy

 

According to Walsh and Wigens (2003), “the research strategy defines the general approach to the research investigation.” Similarly to all issues related to research methodology, there were different options for choice of the research approach and this choice would depend on the study taking place. Saunders et al (2007; p.135) explained that the strategy must be in line with the research objectives and the available resources and also add that the types of strategy are frequently combined with each other throughout the study. The two main types of research

 

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strategy to be considered are surveys and case studies. According to Thomas (2004), “the survey strategy aims to produce generalizations about populations by collecting information from samples.” Additionally the author defends that this technique is commonly used for quantitative research and such affirmation is true due to the large sample considerations needed in order to generalize the findings. Certainly, large sample would not allow for qualitative, in depth analysis but instead permits a greater amount of information to be considered by using a statistic approach.

 

 

3.7 Data Collection

 

Libraries including online databases were accessed to get the most relevant and updated literature. Some of the online databases that were used are: EBSCO, Emerald, Blackwell, etc. The main conclusive data is the result of a thorough analysis of the material found online. The research involved analyzing the news postings on the web over a phase of years. The approach employed was reading the abstract or body of each publication.

 

 

3.8 Rationale for a Qualitative Study

 

Both quantitative and qualitative philosophical frameworks were considered when embarking upon this project. Quantitative research allows the researcher to empirically test hypothesis using statistical methods and provides results that are grounded by mathematically certainty. The studies found in the literature review were found to be primarily quantitative in nature. It was observed, however, that traditional quantitative methods of inquiry “produced very reliable results about very unimportant things”. A few researchers further observed that qualitative research methodology provides the means to deeply explore a phenomenon and

 

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provide more than just “superficial data”. Given that the nature of the inquiry relates to how behavior is manifested in telecommuting employees, however, qualitative research methods that ‘emphasize discovery, description and meaning rather than prediction, control and measurement” provided the best fit for the study.

 

 

3.10 Limitation

 

It is very obvious limitations which exist due to the generalization of this study. A study focused on change management. Additional limitation is inherent in this study. It is assumed that the data sources that used within the studies were reliable and having valid data. Research in any field including social issues like illiteracy in low income children, is a collective human endeavour to discover the truth. Research is a never ending attempt to make the world a better place to live in. The research on mass basis helps in understanding basic human relationship through sharing of ideas, opinion and experience.

 

As in any other dissertation or research project, this dissertation carry’s its own limitation or scope. Time is a definite constraint, considering that the fact duration is for limited time period, and there are other modules in this final level. Finance is a further constraint as the researcher is a student and cannot afford to spend a lot of money to purchase material, which are not available in the libraries. Lack of comprehensive information may be another limitation. Hence, this research is not devoid of bias. However, consideration has been given to make this research as close as possible to reality.

 

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3.12 Time Horizon

 

In order to conduct any sort of research, time is one of the most important factors that are

 

to be considered. Proper time allocation is very important before starting the research for any study. It is very important to plan proper strategies according to the time constraints. The answer to all research questions should be collected in a reasonable span of time. On the other hands, the facts and figures related to the study should also be collected, while keeping the time factor in mind. It is very necessary to consider the time horizon while conducting a research study because if the study is not completed within the planned time horizon, it might go useless for the researcher. The time slot for this particular study was divided, keeping in mind, the time horizon. The time slot divided for this particular study is as follows:

 

Introduction  7%

 

Literature reviews 35%
Research methods 15%
Data collection 13%
Critical Analysis 13%

 

Conclusions and recommendations  9%

 

References 8%

 

 

 

 

3.13 Summary

 

It is important to note that one cannot separate philosophy from method, as the espoused philosophy of the study determines the method. This chapter provided and overview of the philosophical base of phenomenology and social constructivism along with the assumptions that are made among these schools of thought. Additionally, the researcher’s rationale for choosing

 

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these frameworks was presented. The methodology employed to perform this study was described including the role of the researcher and disclosure of existing researcher bias was divulged in order to make sure that evaluation of the research study contained these data points for consideration. This was necessary in order for the study to be evaluated to make sure that the perspectives presented reflects the lived experience of prior study participants and was not impacted by the preconceptions of the researcher. The planned study enumerated and expounded upon Giorgi’s (1989) four step model for performing qualitative research to structure the data analysis procedures. This model recommends bracketing as a first step, identification of central themes as a second step, coding into revelatory themes as a third step, and presentation of the findings as a final step. Practices for quality and verification are also discussed among chapter. The strategies that would be employed by this research study are identified. Finally, the ethical considerations and practices are discussed.

 

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CHAPTER 4: CRITICAL ANALYSIS

 

 

 

 

4.1 Introduction

 

This chapter will introduce the main findings of the research and provide an in-depth analysis of the qualitative data gathered. This section will be covering the critical analysis of the research done for this study and will be focusing on the issues and strategies related to the topic, whilst defending its use for this particular study. Furthermore, this chapter will present the themes selected to consider the data as well as the reasons why such topics have been chosen and the key issues to be studied within each concept. At the same time, reference will be made to the secondary data collected through the several data sources with the objective of supporting the main qualitative data and to provide a better framework for discussion, comparison and analysis.

 

 

4.2 Critical Analysis

 

In many areas of modern economic conditions, businesses are changing very rapidly. Rapid technological change leads to the emergence of new technologies on which new kinds of products and services. Around new technologies and products are formed into new markets. The economy is growing, increasing individual and community well-being, changing consumer needs and demand structure (Rousseau, 2009, 121). For values of economic growth is attached more and more countries. The world economy at the expense of new technologies and the harmonization of consumer demand is becoming global. Parallel within enterprises occur spontaneous processes, blurry structures and management systems that violate the standards process, reducing handling (Pietersen, 2009, 32). Under pressure from internal and external circumstances, businesses are forced to change their own policies, systems and governance

 

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structures. Otherwise, their effectiveness in an increasingly competitive environment can be quickly compromised. Those who manage to beat the competition and the first to offer the market a new, more effective management decisions tend to get a competitive advantage. Today, every type of organization has to gone through live many changes in nature and scale different with temporalities and rhythms variables. These changes appear on the one hand outs as more or less strong, of questioning, ways of acting and thinking found unsatisfactory and also as the development of competent skills leading the organization to a situation perceived as more satisfactory (Duck, 2009, 109). Change management can become problematic, correct malfunctions an organization through the development of new skills is also the subject of “organizational learning”. Therefore, it is important to address the issue of the connection between change and organizational learning (Okumus, 2008, 283).

 

First of all, the combined benefits of change management. Statistical studies show that there is indeed a correlation between the use of change management and improved business results (D’Aprix, 2009, 15). Change management helps to avoid such adverse effects, and factors such as reduced productivity, active and passive resistance to change, turn off workers from the labor process, the friction in the team, professional attrition, layoffs of their own volition, the conflicts among the staff, the slow absorption change, avoidance of work, the division staff to “we” and “they” (Davenport, 2010, 65). The implementation of changes at the level of the organization is helpful in order to create a coherent unified approach to change, one

 

language. This makes the learning curve is shorter; the changes become more persistent and consistent, and thus are supported by shared resources across the organization. But this approach creates the opportunity for continual improvement (Dent & Goldberg, 2008, 25). At the same time, informal, impromptu, which does not apply to the whole organization approach to change

 

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is much less effective, as it creates the risk of conflict of various contradictory approaches, and makes employees more likely to evade the changes to sabotage them, rather than support (Dimitriadis, 2009, 554).

 

Change management involves two kinds of components: the “technical” and “human.” The technical include: limits and goals change, and who carries out the changes, those who finance, authorizes and supports the project, who is implementing the project at all levels, as its wheels and cogs (Eby, 2009, 419). Components of working with people – is to create understanding of the need for change and change management, the desire to change and maintain change management, as well as knowledge and abilities needed to perform certain roles in change management (Eccles, 2010, 70).

 

The British Petroleum and all other companies at their respective industries are facing intense competition from their competitors therefore; all the organizations need to change constantly for their survival and success. As a result, change becomes an ever-present feature of organizational life, both at operational and strategic levels (Burnes, 2004). Under these circumstances, studying how to implement organizational changes becomes an important subject across business, engineering, and environmental management (Garengo, 2009, 440). There are many different definitions on organizational change, but they all carry the connotation of “changing how an organization functions or performs”. For instance, “Organizational change is the revision of established work routines, the revision of existing patterns of communication, the reshuffling of work groups, or the hiring of new employees” (Bamford, 2003, 546). “Organizational change alters how an organization functions, changes who its members and leaders are, what form it takes, or how it allocates it resources” (Collyer,2000, 222). “The

 

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intention of any organizational change is to move the organization from its current state to a more Desirable State”.

 

 

 

4.3 Summary

 

This chapter has analyzed the information gathered during the study. Such consideration has been structured using analysis approach which has been highlighted within the main topic. These concepts have then been analyzed within the most relevant issues which came up during the collection of data and had an important impact on the overall topic being studied. The analysis of these systems has been made in line with the benefits gained by the change management processes as a result of having such standards in place. Lastly, this chapter included a consideration of the importance of understanding for the global companies’ operations.

 

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

 

 

 

 

5.1 Introduction

 

The fifth chapter of this report focuses on reporting the conclusions drawn from the whole research, considering mainly of the secondary data collection concluding elements from the previous searches on the topic and studies. Throughout this section, the research’s aims and objectives will be reviewed and answered with the final objective of addressing the key issue within this study. Furthermore, clear and realistic recommendations will be provided for taken into consideration as well as suggestions related to the main topic. Finally, this section will highlight guidance on how this study can contribute to further researches.

 

 

5.2 Conclusion

 

After having an in-depth analysis of the literature and prior searches, it has been found that changes in the external business environment are not the only possible reason for the loss of efficiency. Along with the external company always occur in the internal changes (Hislop, 2008, 110). These are two parallel processes, which combine, can elevate the company to the heights of success. But most of all, if internal changes are uncontrollable, the company sooner or later there is a danger of loss of efficiency (Hollensen, 2010, 79). Unmanaged or otherwise, spontaneous internal changes occur independently of the will of the company’s management and initially are local, that is concerned only with the individual processes. For example, the establishment of informal relationship between master and site worker (Kotter, 2008,111). The sources of these changes are the actions of employees who for various reasons are not satisfied with the existing order of things. The reasons for such activity may be very different. Someone wants to make a

 

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company or a specific business process more efficient, someone drives forward a professional interest, someone wants to climb the corporate ladder and get a lot of power, and someone wants to facilitate their work without worrying about the quality of the product issued (Laudon, 2011,56). It is important that in any group is almost always there are people that have been established way of doing things does not suit all. And they are trying to change it. Not necessarily globally, but even at its narrowest part (Pereiro, 2010, 62).

 

Moreover, the notion of stereotypes and routines in full measure the conduct of business executives. The only feature of the senior management is that it is not experimenting with private processes and the different options of corporate strategies, structures and systems management, goal setting, planning methods, methods of motivation and control, management practices and functional resources of the organization of business processes (Robey, 2009, 14). Management solutions produced by the leaders on the basis of the knowledge gained in the process of learning and accumulation of professional experience, as well as under the influence of the characteristic properties of the individual. Not by chance, among many experts in the field of management are of the opinion that every company is a reflection of the nature of manager (Rugman, 2010,

 

18). Thus, corporate strategy and the processes that occur at any level of management hierarchy, based on the norms and behaviors, only partially regulated by formal documents (Whittington, 1992, 693).

 

 

5.3 Recommendations

 

Following are the recommendations for the consideration of British Petroleum which can be helpful for the company in order to gain competitive advantage;

 

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Identify the risks associated with change (at individual, team and inherent in the organization) just to ensure that people are prepared to assimilate.

 

Start the action before the change is introduced to “prepare the ground “.

 

Continue the action after the change has arrived.

 

In the event that mitigate the risk to be “sponsored”, identify that structure is best suited to promote and lead change

 

In the event that the principal risk is a communication strategy; identify who will communicate, what kind of messages will have to issued, the frequency of the same, who will be responsible for execution, which means will be the most effective means, and so on (Wöber, 2010, 241).

 

In the case of a learning strategy, identify needs particular training and development programs for the people who require the skills.

 

 

 

  • Summary

 

This chapter has considered the analysis of the data gathered on the previous chapter and utilized this information to reach a conclusion about the topic at hand. It provided an evaluation of the findings by using the theories and models previous mentioned to support the results while generating the final points of this study. Furthermore, this section has answered the research’s questions and addressed its objectives as well as providing recommendations on how the change management strategies have helped British petroleum in gaining competitive advantage Finally, this chapter explained how this study can be used as the basis for future investigations and highlighted the new topics which have been originated from this report and which should be further researched in more details.

 

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CHAPTER 6: SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

 

 

 

There is dearth of further research by considering the topic on hand. Here the research would say that the change manager should develop some strategies for implementation because the change can have both the positive and the negative impact on the performance of people in the workplace. It can be positive in the sense that if the employees find it good for them or if they think that this change is helpful for them, then this would increase their motivational level and will help in increasing their performance (Worrall & Cooper, 1999, 19). Take the example of change in the reward system. Let’s suppose that the change manager changes the reward or incentive system of the organization. If this system is good for the staff and they find it attractive, then their motivational level will increase and as a result their performance will increase too. Also the recruitment system should be changed and the company should hire its employees after following a formal recruitment process. The recruitment process should be comprised of the interview and the assessment test. Proper training and development programs should be held within the company. The marketing and the media staff should be well trained because it is the key essential tool which helps in any company’s promotion. Also the communication gap between the staff and management should end. The emerging theme from the literature review into the background of the study has influenced for carrying out future research on the same topic. While there is some evidence available, the methodologies of these studies inhibit their usefulness with regard to replication of results. Throughout an extensive literature search in the given time period it was evident that the dearth of up-to-date literature specific to change management strategies requires rebalance.

 

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